Pacific Proving Grounds 1958
DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY -- NAVAL
Commanding Officer, USS MANSFIELD (DD-728)
To: Commander Task Group 7.3
Operational Phase Report for HARDTACK
(a) CTG 7.3 INSTRUCTION 03401.1A
(b) CO, USS MANSFIELD (DD-728) conf ltr 050 of 17 May 58
(1) Report of the Operational Phase, Operation HARDTACK
(2) Recommended Weather Balloon Launching Procedure
Reference (a) requires a report of the operational phase
of HARDTACK; to include an abstract, comments, recommendations
and a summary arising therefrom. Reference (b), a report
on event WAHOO was submitted under separate cover.
Enclosure (1) is submitted herewith, reporting on items
noted by reference (a) for the operational phase of HARDTACK.
The following is an abstract of the operation for the period
from 11 May to 10 June 1958.
USS MANSFIELD arrived at Eniwetok Proving Grounds on 11
May 1958 from Long Beach, via Pearl Harbor, taking 11 days
in transit. From 11 May to 16 May MANSFIELD was engaged
in the operational training exercise WAHOO (reference (b)).
Two daytime practices were held on successive days and the
exercise itself was held on 16 May. 17 May was devoted to
stocking aerological supplies from USS
PARKS (DD-884) in DESDIV 11 during the morning and
practicing launching of Rawin Balloons, firing of parachute
projectiles and HASP rockets for training and practice tracking
purposes in the afternoon. MANSFIELD departed Eniwetok the
same day for weather station BRAVO where Rawin soundings
were taken satisfactorily until 22 May. MANSFIELD returned
to Eniwetok on 22 May, replenished fuel and aerological
supplies, and was assigned to SAR duties. During this period
no SAR incident occurred and liberty was made available
to all hands. Between 27 May and 4 June MANSFIELD again
was assigned weather station BRAVO experienceng little difficulty
in its assigned mission. From 5 t0 7 June MANSFIELD was
assigned SAR duties at Eniwetok with the possibility of
being assigned as the observing destroyer for exercise UMBRELLA;
however, MANSFIELD was sent to Station DELTA PRIME ouside
Bikini for further Rawin soundings on 8 June and remained
there through 10 June, being autorized to anchor in Bikini
at discretion on non-shot days.
From the standpoint of planning, it is evident that a great
deal of thought and energy went into coordination the activities
of Naval units participating Operation HARDTACK. As a result
of experience gained and details that have arisen, the following
comments and recommendations are submitted:
RAWIN. RAWIN data prior to arrival at EPG was non-existent.
Very little was know as to what was expected, until USS
PARKS personnel reported aboard to transfer their
RAWIN material, and the Assistant Force Aerologist brought
aboard the doctrine.
Recommend that a weather balloon launching procedure be
promulgated for study by DD's prior to their arrival at
EPG. (Enclosure (1), para. 1 and 2 and enclosure (2)).
LOKI Rockets. Personnel on board were not familiar with
LOKI rockets, stowage or use prior to conferring with USS
Recommend that LOKI information be promulgated for study
by DD's prior to their arrival at EPG. (Enclosure (2), para.
Water Transportation. Boat pool facilities at Bikini were
excellent. Boat facilities at Eniwetok were inadequate due
primarily to distances involved and facilities available
to do the job. Officers and men were required to use hours,
and in some cases a good part of the day to do minor jobs
that required transportation about the harbor. Transportation
for liberty parties, due to the required transfer at ELMER
Island, and the infrequency of scheduled trips made liberty
an arduous detail. Consequently, liberty parties seldom
were of a maximum number. Many man-hours of work among ship's
company and high paid civilian help ashore were lost due
to lack of more prompt and reliable boat transportation.
Recommend in future operations of HARDTACK nature that more
boats and boat personnel be made available. (Enclosure (1),
para. 4.c. and 5.b.).
Maintenance. In-port ship's maintenance periods were no
available during the period of this report.
Recommend a 3 day in-port upkeep and maintenance period
for the purpose of working on equipment and ship's hull
areas that cannot be accomplished during either expected
or scheduled operating periods. (Enclosure 2, para. 5 concerning
sonar gear, MK37 radar and machinery).
Logistics. An increase of 25% monetary allowance on provisions
was provided; however, certain improvements in quality of
food were not available.
Recommend boneless beef by special cuts be authorized for
forces afloat in order to better utilize the additional
allowance. (Enclosure (1), para. 5.a).
Communications. Difficulty was experienced in the transmission
and receipt of high priority traffic.
Recommend that use of alternate and simultaneous frequencies
be employed. (enclosure (1), para. 7.).
Security. Access badges were initially requested on a "need-to-know"
basis. Later, all commissioned officers were issued access
recommend CTG 7.3 INSTRUCTION 05512.1A be revised to reflect
the situation whereby all commissioned officers require
an access badge, or that requirements for access to certain
areas ashore be revised. (Enclosure (1), para. 8.).
Operation HARDTACK has been a training period for all hands,
particularly event WAHOO, as noted by paragraph 2(4)(d)
of reference (b). As reflected by comments and notes submitted
herewith all hands gained a great deal of first hand experience
W.J. MC NULTY
DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
-- NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER
OF OPERATIONAL PHASE, OPERATION HARDTACK
1. Planning. Planning information received prior to arrival
in EPG was in general adequate. However, prior information
concerning the procedures involved in taking RAWIN data
would have assisted greatly in advance planning and organization
of ship's functions. Advance information also on the procedures
used in firing LOKI rockets would have assisted in training
personnel prior to actual use. Stowage requirements for
LOKI rockets were no known ahead of time causing some concern.
Training. Other than security indoctrination the training
required for Operation HARDTACK consisted mainly of learning
the procedure involved in taking and transmitting of RAWIN
data, and rehearsals prior to the participation in Exercise
WAHOO. The ship experienced very little difficulty in learning
the correct procedures for procuring RAWIN data, utilizing
well the one-half day period allowed for training purposes.
Officer and enlisted instructors from PARKS
(DD-884) were aboard during this time and were well
versed and most cooperative instructors on the various phases
involved. Exercise WAHOO is discussed in reference (a).
Movement to Forward Area. No problems were encountered during
the movement from Long Beach to Eniwetok Proving Grounds.
Navigation. No outstanding problems in navigation were encountered.
However, the aero beacon on FRED Island at Eniwetok Atoll
did not agree with navigational plot and eventually was
disregarded. Also on NAN Island at Bikini Atoll, a "Middle
Tower" not officially plotted on the chart gave excellent
results when used in conjunction with the other navigational
aids. Location of "middle" tower was provided
by USS PARKS. It is recommended
that the information concerning the location of this tower
(Latitude 11° 31' 30.5", Longitude 165° 33'
56.4") be promulgated for future reference. All other
information was adequate and no dragging of anchor was experienced.
Track Data. MANSFIELD participation in one exercise, WAHOO,
which is covered in detail by reference (b) together with
the required track chart, enclosure (1), thereto.
Surface Water Transportation. MANSFIELD was not involved
in inter-atoll surface transportation. Boat pool facilities
at Bikini Atoll proved to be excellent with services for
supplies, transfer, liberty parties and pusher boats all
readily available. Eniwetok boat schedules were inadequate
and did not enable key personnel to carry out assigned missions
away from the ship without great difficulty and loss of
time. This subject as relates to recreation is discussed
in paragraph 5.
Operational Area. No unauthorized craft were encountered
in EPG danger area.
Search and Rescue. Although MANSFIELD was assigned SAR stations
on several occasions, no SAR incident occurred.
Radiological Safety. No instance involving either the safety
of the ship or the crew was noted.
Logistics. No period for ship's force maintenance and upkeep
in port, as such, was assigned MANSFIELD; however, no equipment
casualties prevented MANSFIELD from performing her assigned
mission. An inspection of MANSFIELD's Sonar Dome by divers
revealed the cause of a "spoking" effect on the
sonar indicator to be coral growth on the outside of the
Sonar Dome. this was removed and satisfactory operation
of the sonar equipment followed. High in-port water injection
temperature required the use of high speeds for auxiliary
pumps making their operation more difficult. It is recommended
that weather observation ships be scheduled for a 3 day
minimum in-port upkeep and maintenance period. The continued
use of the gyro, the MK37 Director and associated MK25 radar
plus other equipment such as the Stable Element and various
pieces of engineering equipment does not allow proper time
for cleaning and maintenance.
Supply. replenishment procedures for provisions were satisfactory
with only a normal amount of spoilage, which was expected.
Repair parts requested form NSC, Pearl by message were received
in the shortest possible time.
Ship's Store realized a significant increase in sales, particularly
in the luxury items line such as watches and jewelry. The
lack of storeroom space prevented stocking of many items
which would have been desirable for ship's company morale.
It is suggested that destroyer type ships be allowed to
order boneless beef by specific cuts so as to better utilize
the additional 25% monetary allowance. The normal allowance
supplies normal food. If something extra can't be purchased,
the additional 25% can't lend to increased morale.
Liberty. Recreation facilities at Bikini were considered
excellent, due primarily to the efficient boat transportation
available that operated on an hourly basis and the location
of the recreation area. Recreation facilities at Eniwetok
were considered good once the liberty party arrived; however,
boat transportation for liberty parties was inadequate due
to the infrequent trips, long runs, the need of transferring
from boat to boat and the resulting crowded conditions on
board the LCU and LCM liberty boats. Several MANSFIELD liberty
parties were cancelled due to the ship's return to port
after 1300. Liberty parties had to depart for the recreation
area during the noon hour and could not return aboard ship
until either 1600 or 1800. Prolonged liberty for those who
desired to return (or should have returned) resulted in
some minor disciplinary problems that could have been avoided.
Hourly liberty boat transportation is recommended.
Administration and personnel.
(1) Personnel losses occurring because of personnel stabilization
(2) Losses due to emergency leave - 0
(3) Losses du to hospitalization (psychiatric observation)
(4) Mandatory transfers - 0
(5) Security risks - 4
b. The personnel situation was satisfactory except for the
lack of qualified watch supervisors for standing efficient
communication watches (1 RM2 and 1 RM3 aboard), lack of
stewards (one was "borrowed" from Commander Destroyer
Squadron NINE's Staff Allowance) and lack of non-rated with
the limited on board count of enlisted personnel, the non-rated
men on the deck force had little hope of striking unless
a current striker was dropped from his gang. The deck force
has operated at minimum numbers.
Discipline was no problem in the EPG Area.
(1) Courts-Martial cases, originating at EPG - 0
(2) Non-Judicial Punishment cases - 1
(3) confinement cases - 0
The volume of shipboard traffic handled was not in excess
and at no time was the volume of traffic the cause of a
problem of processing and control of message traffic. However,
several shipboard personnel procedural errors were noted,
mainly due to the lack of rated and qualified radiomen.
This situation prohibited MANSFIELD radio watches from carrying
out assigned duties at expected proficiency. Nor difficulties
arose concerning security of communications. It was noted,
however, some encrypted D-day designation messages were
closely followed by plain language messages of identical
The HARDTACK frequency plan appears to have been effective.
Communications difficulties were experienced with channel
4 when MANSFIELD was on weather station. Between 2200M and
2400M daily mainly messages were received garbled. It is
recommended that the COMM CENTER PERRY, guard on HOTEL ROMEO
FOXTROT circuit for limited periods, of the Eniwetok ship,
to enable the ship to secure one teletype at intervals for
The procedure of interrogating MANSFIELD on a CW circuit
as to the reception of messages on Task Group RATT was found
to be very effective in reducing time delays of many messages.
No special communications equipment was installed for OPeration
HARDTACK with the exception of the portable boat pool transceiver
which aided greatly in coordinating with the boat schedule
and providing logistic services.
Equipment casualties to one teletype and one TBL transmitter
were encountered. These casualties did not materially affect
the ability of the ship to carry out its assigned communications
mission and have been repaired.
Security. The ship's security indoctrination program appeared
to be effective. All officers and 2 enlisted personnel were
issued security badges. This was a sufficient amount of
personnel to complete assigned tasks. It is recommended
that CTG 7.3 INSTRUCTION 05512.1A be revised to include
all commissioned officers, as all officers aboard MANSFIELD
at one time or another had the need for an access badge.
Although from a security stand-point certain officers have
no need for an access badge, they are often unable to perform
supervisory duties due to routine need to trespass in restricted
areas ashore. From a practical stand-point every commissioned
officer has need for an access badge, if only to perform
daily routine responsibilities.
OF JOINT TASK FORCE (JTF) 7.3 - Operation Hardtack 1
TITLE: OPERATION HARDTACK ENIWETOK PROVING GROUND MARCH-AUGUST
USS BOXER (CVS-21) FEB 58-AUG 58 FLAGSHIP
USS COMSTOCK (LSD-19) DEC 57-APR 58
USS TORTUGA (LSD-26) FEB 58-APR 58
USS BELLE GROVE (LSD-2) APR 58-AUG 58
USS MONTICELLO (LSD-35) APR 58-AUG 58
T-LST 618 SEP 47-DEC 58
T-LST 664 SEP 57-OCT 58
USS RENVILLE (APA-227) APR 58-MAY 58
USS MAGOFFIN (APA-1990 MAY 58-JUN 58
USS NAVARRO (APA-215) JUL 58-AUG 58
USS FLOYD B. PARKS (DD-884) MAR 58-MAY
USS JOHN R. CRAIG (DD-885) MAR 58-MAY 58
USS ORLECK (DD-886) MAR 58-MAY 58
USS PERKINS (DDR-877) MAR 58-MAY 58
USS MANSFIELD (DD-728) MAY 58-AUG 58
USS COLLETT (DD-730) MAY 58-AUG 58
USS DEHAVEN (DD-727) MAY 58-AUG 58
USS BENNER (DDR-807) MAY 58-AUG 58
USS EPPERSON (DDE-719) AUG 58-AUG 58
USS CHANTICLEER (ASR-7) APR 58-MAY 58
USS GRASP (ARS-24) MAR 58-JUN 58
USS BOLSTER (ARS-38) MAR 58-JUN 58
USS MOCTOBI (ATF-105) FEB 58-JUN 58
USS ARIKARA (ATF-98) MAR 58-AUG 58
USS TAKELMA (ATF-113) MAR 58-AUG 58
USS MUNSEE (ATF-107) MAR 58-JUN 58
USS CHOWANOC (ATF-100) MAR 58-JUN 58
USS CREE (ATF-84) APR 58-AUG 58
USS HOOPER ISLAND (ARG-17) APR 58-JUN 58
USS CACAPON (AO-52) MAR 58-AUG 58
USS LANSING (DER-388) MAY 58-JUN 58
JUL 58-AUG 58
USS JOYCE (DER-317) MAY 58-JUN 58
USS SILVERSTEIN (DE-534) SEP 58-SEP 58 3 Weeks period.
USS REHOBOTH (AGS-50) APR 58-JUN 58
USS LAWRENCE CTY (LST-887) MAY 58-JUN 58
USS AINSWORTH (T-AP-181) APR 58-JUL 58
USS BONITA (SSK-3) APR 58-JUN 58
USS KARIN (AF-33) MAR 58-AUG 58 Operated bwtween Pearl
USS MERAPI (AF-38) MAR 58-AUG 58 Harbor and
USS COGSWELL (DD-651) JUL 58-AUG 58
USS SAFEGUARD (ARS-25) JUL 58-AUG 58
USS HITCHITI (ATF-103) JUL 58-AUG 58 Mission Basis.
USS TILLAMAMOOK (ATF-102) JUL 58-AUG 58
Weapons Test Film Descriptions
0800023 - Operation Hardtack, Military Effects Studies,
Part 1 - Basic Effects, Structures and Material (Operation
Hardtack I) - 1958 - 26:00 - Black&White
Hardtack I consisted of 35 nuclear tests conducted at the
Pacific Proving Ground between April 28 and August 18, 1958.
These tests included balloon, surface, barge, underwater,
and rocket-borne high-altitude tests. The first test, YUCCA,
was a nuclear device attached to a helium balloon launched
from the USS Boxer near Enewetak Atoll.
I consisted of three portions; the first was the development
of nuclear weapons. This was a continuation of the type
of testing conducted at Enewetak and Bikini during the early
and mid-1950s. In these tests, the weapons development laboratories,
Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of California
Radiation Laboratory, detonated their experimental devices,
while the Department of Defense (DoD) provided support and
conducted experiments that did not interfere with Atomic
Energy Commission activities.
second portion, sponsored by DoD, consisted of the underwater
tests WAHOO and UMBRELLA. WAHOO was detonated in the open
ocean and UMBRELLA in the lagoon at Enewetak. The purpose
of these tests was to improve the understanding of the effects
of underwater explosions on Navy ships and material. These
were continuations of earlier underwater testing that included
BAKER in Crossroads at Bikini in 1946 and WIGWAM off the
U.S. West Coast in 1955.
DoD also sponsored the third portion, addressing the military
problems of air-borne nuclear weapon defense. Three high-altitude
tests featured rocket-borne TEAK and ORANGE at Johnston
Island and balloon-hoisted YUCCA between Enewetak and Bikini.
major aspects of Hardtack Is experimental program
were the development of the weapons themselves and the measurement
of the explosive and radiation effects. Also, since the
development of a nuclear armed fleet ballistic missile was
on a fast track, a portion of Hardtack I was devoted to
testing the warhead for the Polaris missile.
tests comprising the 1958 Operation Hardtack I were as follows:
April 28, Pacific (between Enewetak and Bikini), balloon,
weapons effects, 1.7 kilotons (kt)
CACTUS, May 5, Enewetak, surface, weapons related, 18 kt
FIR, May 11, near Bikini, barge, weapons related, 1.36 megatons
BUTTERNUT, May 11, near Enewetak, barge, weapons related,
KOA, May 12, Enewetak, surface, weapons related, l.37 Mt
WAHOO, May 16, near Enewetak, underwater, weapons effects,
HOLLY, May 20, near Enewetak, barge, weapons related, 5.9
NUTMEG, May 21, near Bikini, barge, weapons related, 25.1
YELLOWWOOD, May 26, near Enewetak, barge, weapons related,
MAGNOLIA, May 26, near Enewetak, barge, weapons related,
TOBACCO, May 30, near Enewetak, barge, weapons related,
SYCAMORE, May 31, near Bikini, barge, weapons related, 92
ROSE, June 2, near Enewetak, barge, weapons related, 15
UMBRELLA, June 8, near Enewetak, underwater, weapons effects,
MAPLE, June 10, near Bikini, barge, weapons related, 213
ASPEN, June 14, near Bikini, barge, weapons related, 319
WALNUT, June 14, near Enewetak, barge, weapons related,
LINDEN, June 18, near Enewetak, barge, weapons related,
REDWOOD, June 27, near Bikini, barge, weapons related, 412
ELDER, June 27, near Enewetak, barge, weapons related, 880
OAK, June 28, near Enewetak, barge, weapons related, 8.9
HICKORY, June 29, near Bikini, barge, weapons related, 14
SEQUOIA, July 1, near Enewetak, barge, weapons related,
CEDAR, July 2, near Bikini, barge, weapons related, 220
DOGWOOD, July 5, near Enewetak, barge, weapons related,
POPLAR, July 12, near Bikini, barge, weapons related, 9.3
SCAEVOLA, July 14, near Enewetak, barge, safety experiment,
PISONIA, July 17, near Enewetak, barge, weapons related,
JUNIPER, July 22, near Bikini, barge, weapons related, 65
OLIVE, July 22, near Enewetak, barge, weapons related, 202
PINE, July 26, near Enewetak, barge, weapons related, 2
TEAK, August 1, off Johnston Island area, rocket, weapons
effects, 3.8 Mt
QUINCE, August 6, Enewetak, surface, weapons related, zero
ORANGE, August 12, off Johnston Island area, rocket, weapons
effects, 3.8 Mt
FIG, August 18, Enewetak, surface, weapons related, 20 tons
Nuclear Weapons Test Films
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